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Joseph W. Gauld 

Kenneth L Grant 
Executive Director 



Lennox K. Black 
Teieftex Inc.r- 
Plymouth Meeting, PA 

Jack S. Diskin 

Difam Investments, Ltd., 

Calgary, Alberta 

David F. Hinchman 
President & CEO, 
U.S. Precision Lens, 
Cincinnati, OH 

Raymond L Smart 


The Smart Foundation, 

Greenwich, CT 


Dr. Warren G. Bennis 
Distinguished Professor 
of Business Management, 
use, Berkeley, CA 

James V. Capua 


The Donner Foundation, 

New York, NY 


Malibu, CA 

Dr. James S. Coleman 
University Professor, 
University of Chicago, 
Chicago, IL 

R Michael Farmer 
CFO, Perot Systems, 
Hemdon, VA 

Dr. James W. Preston 


UConn Dept. of Medicine, 

Farmington, CT 

Quincy Jones 
Los Angeles, CA 

Armin U. Kuder, Esq. 
Kuder, Smollar & 
Friedman, P.C, 
Washington, DC 

Donald P. Nielsen 

Hazelton Corporation, 
Vienna, VA 

William E. Simon 


William E. Simon & Sons, Inc., 

Morristoum, NJ 



The Honorable Piedad F. Robertson 
Secretary of Education 
Attn: Charter Schools 
Executive Office of Education 
One Ashburton Place, Room 1401 
Boston MA 02108 

h E C 

February 14, 1994 

n r. . 



^\'^^:^'Tvy Of /!, 

Or EOOw^ 

■ / ■■; 


Dear Madame Secretary: 


The Hyde Foundation and its affiliate F.A.ST. Inc. (Family and School 
Together) are pleased to submit its application to found a Charter School in 

Because of our first public school success-r/ie Hyde Leadership School of 
Greater New Haven--The Smart Family Foundation requested we develop a urban- 
suburban Hyde model as a companion to another inner-city Hyde model we have 
been asked to develop for Baltimore, MD. After much consideration, we believe 
the Massachusetts charter school movement to be the most innovative state 
program nationally to fit our needs, as well as being centrally located to our two 
present models. We believe our strongest Hyde alumni parent and student support 
nationally is also in Massachusetts. 

I personally would be delighted to return to my home state-I was born in 
Springfield, graduated from Wellesley High School, was married in Newton, and 
did my graduate work at MIT and Boston University. 

We would be honored to receive your approval, and we would look forwaid 
to working with you to develop an outstanding national model in Massachusetts 
that features character development and parental involvement. 


Joseph W. Gauld 

616 HIGH STREET. BATH. MAINE 04530 • 207-443-5584 / FAX 207-443-8631 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

Executive Office of Education 

^^ * •> •• s*^^>^^ f^* 

' , ^-x^^^i 

ChaHef' j^ School -AMpmation 
designated; ; ConmpMjEerson 



Please provide the Executive Office of Education with the following information 
identifying a designated contact person for the group submitting an application for charter 
school status. This form must be filed along with the charter ^£Bo^S^^lIc2Sofi nolater 
than February 15, 1994. Please mail all required materials toi: ^ 

Secretary of Education • 

ATTN: Charter Schools ": 

Executive Office of Education ; 

One Ashburton Place, Room 1401 

Boston, Massachusetts 02108 

Tel: (617) 727-1313 


OF EUuoMiiuiNl 

Please print or type: 

The Ifyde Foundation 

Name of organization/group filing for charter school status 

Contact Person 

Kenneth L. Grant 



Date; ^/ J^/1994 


Executive Director, The Hyde Foimdation 


f^16 High <;trPPf, -Rpfh MainP ()h^'\() 





(207) A43-5584 


(207) A43-8631 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

Executive Office of Education 

Charter School Application 

VWq, the undersigned charter school applicant(s), do hereby certify that the information provided 
herein and filed with the Executive Office of Education on this the 14 th day of 

February (month) of the year 1994, is to the best of my/our knowledge, truthful and 

(This signature sheet must be attached to the application when it is filed.) 

Name: Kenneth L. 




^ ^ylxa^v^: tJuMv 

Address: ^^^ ^^S^ 




Slate: Maine 

Zip: 04530 

Tel: (207) 443-5376 


Name: Joseph W. Gauld 


\ ^rv^^ J\Sk^^5^: "^ /( ^ Is « 

Address: 616 High 




Scale: Maine 

Zip: 04530 

Tel: (207) 443-4162 

Name: Craig A. Cunningham 


u a 


Date: Z/fV/^7 

Address:10 Somerset Place 


Bath ' 

State: Maine 

Zip: 04530 ' 

Tel: (207) 443-8873 





































If more ^>ace is required, please attach additional sheets. 

Executive Office of Education, One Ashburton Place, Room 1401. Boston, MA, 02108 

T~ '•: "S" 

H T^ r N 

I'tt) I 5 '"^ 




The Hyde 
Charter School 

i; ... 

An Application Submitted to 

The Secretary of Education 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

(Part I) 

Submitted by: 

Kenneth L. Grant, Executive Director 

The Hyde Foundation, Bath Maine 04530 

(207) 443-5584; fax: (207) 443-8631 

Table of Contents 



What is Hyde? 

The Hyde Concept: A Philosophical Overview 10 

The Hyde Process 12 


A. What are the school's broad academic objectives for student learning? 15 

B. Describe any non-academic goals for student performance. 20 

C. What type of community environment do you hope to foster at your school? 29 


A. Why is there a need for this type of school? 31 

B. Explain why a charter school would help to effectively address this need. 32 


A. Describe the area where the school will be located. If a facility has already been 

secured, please state so. 41 

B. Why was this location selected? Are there other locations suitable to the needs and 

focus of the school? 41 

C. Describe any unique characteristics of the student population to be served. 43 

D. What is the school's anticipated enrollment? 44 

E. What grade levels will be served? How many students are expected to be in each 

grade or grouping? 44 


A. Demonstrate how you will publicize the school to attract a sufficient pool of 

a pplicants. 45 

B. Specifically, what type of outreach will be made to potential students and their 

families? 45 


A. Describe the admission methods and standards you will use to select students. 48 

B. Explain bow these policies further the mission of the school in a non-discriminatory 

fashion. 51 


A Describe the make-up of the group or partnership that is working together to a pply for 
a charter. 52 

B. Discuss how the group came together, as well as any affiliation with existing schools, 

educational programs, businesses, non-profits, or any other groups. 52 

C. Include any plans for further recruitment of founders or organizers of the school. 57 


A. Discuss a timetable of events leading to the opening of a charter school. 58 


Appendix I : Letters of Support 

Appendix II : Gardiner-Hyde Mediator's Report 

Appendix III : Recent Hyde School Graduation Speeches 

Appendix IV : Design Team Resumes 

Appendix V : Newspaper Articles about Hyde 

A ppendix VI : Letter to Hyde Parents from Director of Family Learning Center 

Exhibit A : Video of 60 Minutes' 'The Hyde Solution" 

Exhibit B : Character First: The Hyde School Difference, by Joseph W. Gauld (San 
Francisco: ICS Press, 1993) 

Exhibit C : Pamphlets from the "Hyde School Concepts" series: 
Building Blocks 

Discipline at Hyde School 

Hyde as a System 

Exhibit D : Pamphlets from Springfield, Gardiner, and New Haven 
Exhibit E: Parents' Book 


The Commonwealth of Massachusetts seeks charter schools to "promote new 
options in delivering public education to our children" and serve as "educational 
laboratories where educators can investigate new dynamics and methods to be modeled by 
the larger school system." Massachusetts's charter school legislation is designed to 
promote innovation in the public school system, by allowing "teachers... unprecedented 
freedom" and "autonomy" along with accountability for delivering results. 

Twenty-eight years ago, the Hyde School experiment in Bath, Maine set out to 
discover a better way for educating our nation's youth. In the relatively unrestricted arena 
of private schooling, the Hyde School has become a "lighthouse" of innovation and 
success. Hyde School proves that putting Character First"™ is a better way to educate 
America's adolescents. The school continues to generate comments: 

• "Hyde is an educational concept light years ahead of its time " - Marc 
Brown, noted author of children's books. 

• Hyde is "another world, another planet" - Hava Shavit, an Israeli 
superintendent who found America's best schools "disappointing." 

• Hyde School is "The Hyde Solution " to American educational problems - 
C.B.S.'s 60 Minutes. 

• "Business leaders today are just beginning to catch up to what Hyde has 
practiced for 25 years. " - Duane Fitzgerald, CEO of the Bath Iron Works. 

• "The approach taken by Hyde School is extremely important for the 
kind of society that America has become. " - Professor James S. Coleman, 
University of Chicago. ^ 

The Hyde concept of education creates an exciting new frontier for American 
education. More than transforming the school, it transforms the entire child-rearing 
community. It re-centers the educational process upon the family and it bonds parents, 
teachers, and students — and even the larger community — into a powerful team. It 

1 See Appendix I for complete text of Hava Shavit's and James Coleman's letters. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 6 

motivates students to a larger purpose in life, empowers parents as the primary teachers, 
and elevates teachers to a new professionalism in which they guide the entire grov/ing-up 

This revolutionary process grew out of the vision of Joseph W, Gauld, a 
committed teacher whose dissatisfaction with our present educational system led him to 
search for a better way. Hyde School spent its first 25 years formulating, testing, and 
retesting its revolutionary approach to education. This approach has proven successful 
with a diverse population of students and families. It is now being recognized by public 
school communities as an exciting concept that could help transform their schools. 

Now Family and School Together, Inc. (FAST), a Massachusetts affiliate of the 
Hyde School, and The Hyde Foundation (of Bath, Maine), seek a charter from the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts to show conclusively that this better way works in the 
public sector as well as it does in the private. This project will allow us to show that the 
model works not only in the inner city (New Haven and Baltimore) but in a 
urban/suburban location as well. Our primary financial backer— the Smart Family 
Foundation—has asked us to set up such a model as our next project. The Massachusetts 
charter school legislation provides us with a prime opportunity to do so. 

FAST has already accumulated some valuable experience taking the Hyde concept 
and process into the public schools. In 1990 and 1991, FAST worked with the 
Springfield, Massachusetts Public Schools to design the Hyde Leadership School of 
Springfield, which was to open in the autumn of 1991 with 150 students. Over 650 
interested families submitted preliminary applications before the project was quashed by 
the Springfield Education Association, which felt it had "too much on its plate" at the time 
(the SEA had failed to reach a contract with the Springfield Public Schools, and didn't 
want to Hyde project to interfere with ongoing negotiations). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 7 

In 1991 and 1992, FAST worked with the Maine School Administrative District 
11 (Gardiner) to develop a school -within-a-school. After a highly successful summer 
orientation for teachers, students, and families on the campus of Hyde School (Bath), the 
program opened with 140 students and nine teachers at Gardiner Area High School. The 
program produced amazing results for those students and parents wr were involved, but 
its presence within a high school with a radically different culture — different philosophy, 
methods, and expectations — caused antagonism to arise. Within two months, the majority 
of the non-Hyde teachers in the high school petitioned the MSAD 11 School Board to 
cancel the Hyde program. The Board suspended the program to allow for mediation 
between The Hyde Foundation and the high school teachers (backed by the local chapter 
of the Maine Teachers Association). The MTA refused to give any ground in the 
mediation,^ but the School Board voted 7 to 5 to reinstate the program with a number of 
restrictions on how the program's participants could apply the Hyde concept. However, 
the wind had been taken out of the sails of the program, and by the end of the school year, 
the Smart Family Foundation — the program's primary financial support — decided not to 
renew its funding. (A group of Gardiner families continues to pursue the Hyde program in 
evening meetings with Hyde Foundation personnel. The MSAD 11 superintendent, Dr. 
Ronald Snyder, continues to support the Hyde concept. See his letter of support in 
Appendix I.) 

In the spring of 1992, FAST worked with the Superintendent of the New Haven, 
Connecticut Public Schools to develop a school built on the Hyde concept. It was decided 
early on that a repeat of the Gardiner school-within-a-school approach should not be 
attempted, and personnel from the New Haven school worked feverishly to provide the 
Hyde Leadership School of Greater New Haven with a site of its own. After another 

2 See Appendix II for a copy of the Mediator's letter to the Gardiner superintendent 
following the mediation. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 8 

highly successful summer orientation, the program opened in New Haven with 120 
students, 8 teachers, and a four-person site team from FAST. The program is currently 
flourishing in a former Catholic school in Hamden, Connecticut. Parental participation is 
currently over 65 percent, student enthusiasm is astounding, and teacher commitment is 
high. (A copy of a brochure describing the New Haven program is included in Exhibit D. 
Also see letter of support for this application from New Haven superintendent Dr. 
Reginald Mayo in Appendix I. ) 

FAST is currently working with the Baltimore, Maryland Public Schools to open a 
nev^ school in the fall of 1994. Together with our operations in Bath and New Haven, we 
expect the Hyde Leadership School of Baltimore to allow us the opportunity to further 
refine our public school approach. By the fall of 1995, we are certain that we will have 
demonstrated conclusively the effectiveness of the Hyde approach for all types of children. 
The New Haven project indicates that we have now found the formula for successful 
public schools based on the Hyde concept. We hope to apply this formula — ^with 
alterations to suit local conditions — in Massachusetts beginning in September of 1995. 
While the Massachusetts school will be innovative for Massachusetts, it will build upon a 
tested, refined, and proven concept and process which has already begun to revolutionize 
American education. We hope the Commonwealth of Massachusetts will want to be in the 
forefront of this revolution. 

This document follows the format and guidelines promulgated by the Executive 
Office of Education in its "Charter School Application." We are submitting only Part I of 
the application — along with some supplementary materials — in the hopes that we will be 
granted preliminary approval for a charter to begin in 1995. We will submit additional 
information and materials as they become available. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School _ February 15, 1994 Page 9 


The purpose of The Hyde Charter School will be: 

To provide a learning environment where individuals develop 
character and discover a deeper purpose in their lives. 

To understand the educational implications of this mission, it is necessary to understand 
the Hyde concept and process.^ 

What is Hvde? 

1) a concept which holds that every person is gifted with a unique potential which defines 

a destiny. Unique potential is developed through character — courage, integrity, 
curiosity, concern for others, and leadership — which is learned by^ the example of 
parents and schools in a synergistic partnership of commitment to transcendent 

Destiny: Each of us is gifted with a unique potential. 

Humility: We believe in a power and a purpose beyond ourselves. 

Conscience: We attain our best through character and conscience. 

Truth: Truth is our primary guide. 

Brother's Keeper: We help others achieve their best.'* 

2) a process which fosters growth through a diverse experiential curriculum of action 

together with self- reflection which addresses not only intellectual but physical, 
social, emotional and spiritual potentials, helping students to progress through the 

^For more information on the Hyde concept and process, see Joseph W. Gauld's book. 
Character First: The Hyde School Difference (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1993). A copy 
of Character First is enclosed with this application as Exhibit B. 

'^For educational purposes, Hyde's Five Principles have evolved into a set of Five Lessons 
which are more easily grasped and operationalized. The Five Lessons are: "Take a risk 
and have fun"; "Best effort over performance"; "Bet on the truth"; "Be yourself; and 
"Support each other's best." 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 10 

stages of a continuous improvement toward excellence with the ultimate goal of 
taking full responsibility for their own lives. 

The Hyde Concept: A Philosophical Overview 

The entire Hyde program is built upon the fundamental belief that each youngster 
is gifted with a unique potential for excellence that defines his or her destiny and purpose 
in life. This premise is universally accepted by parents, teachers, and students; and in the 
Hyde schools the premise has proven to reach the deeper potentials of all members of the 
school community. When this belief becomes the most basic assumption of schooling, it 
finally brings a true solution to the age-old problem of discrimination, which has no place 
in a community where each individual is believed to be gifted with a unique destiny and 
purpose in life. This basic premise is complemented by four additional principles — 
Humility, Conscience, Truth, And Brother's Keeper — creating a powerful school 
community in which learning, growth, and mutual concern unite participants in a 
commitment to excellence. 

Hyde discovered long ago that the family is the center of an individual's unique 
potential, and that the school must work to fully develop each family's child-rearing 
potential. So Hyde has developed a process that identifies and unites the goals of home 
and school. A continual focus upon parents as the primary teachers, and the home as the 
primary classroom, ensures the vital learning foundation of attitude, effort, character, and 
deeper sense of purpose that fully prepares and motivates youngsters to learn. This 
unified family-school approach guides the child through childhood and then adolescence, 
helping parents to "let go" while eventually empowering the teenager to assume full 
responsibility for his or her new life. The Hyde curriculum provides continual 
opportunities to address parental and family growth, including the "Family Learning 
Center," a two- to three-day intensive workshop on personal and family growth issues. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 11 

The home and school environments are pulled together by the agreement of parents, 
teachers and students alike to observe the five Hyde principles. ^ 

Because the Hyde program requires family participation by at least one parent or 
guardian, Hyde public school models employ a "mentoring" system for students whose 
parents lack the necessary commitment, particularly in depressed areas where such family 
commitments may be widely lacking. These models will work with local social service 
agencies to identify and assist those youngsters who may need help to maintain their own 

Maintaining this continual commitment to each person's best and to the Hyde 
principles is not easy. Hyde has found it requires both individuals and schools to 
concentrate on developing their character — specifically, courage, integrity, concern for 
others, curiosity, and leadership. Since character is taught primarily by example, parents 
and teachers also experience an on-going program to address their own character growth. 
As students see their teachers and parents working hard to develop their own characters, a 
strong parent-teacher-student bond is formed which completely dissipates the pervasive 
negative peer pressure that exists in many American schools today .^ 

The more deeply Hyde School addresses both student and parental growth, the 
more it realizes a deeper process of human development that present education ignores. If 
knowledge is outwardly acquired and wisdom inwardly developed, then mainstream 
American education emphasizes only knowledge. The Hyde School experiment 
demonstrates that at approximately age 13, children can begin to take responsibility and to 

5 See Appendix I for letters by former Hyde parents who discuss the profound effect of the 
Hyde concept on their working lives: Lennox K. Black (chairman, Teleflex, Inc.), 
Lawrence Chickering (Associate Director of the Institute for Contemporary Studies), and 
Jack Diskin (Chairman of DiFam, Inc.). 

^ For more on this peer pressure, see John U. Ogbu's "The Consequences of the American 
Cast System," in The Achievement of Minority Students: New Perspectives, edited by U. 
Neisser (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February IS, 1994 Page 12 

think for themselves. Therefore, we have found that high school education must 
emphasize wisdom, character, and the beginnings of 5e//-knowledge. 

The ancient Greeks had two fundamental aphorisms: "Know Thyself," and 
"Become What You Are." Hyde helps the students to fulfill these injunctions through its 
program for unique potential. By continually getting students to focus on three 
questions — ^"Who am I?"; "Where am I going with my life?"; and "What do I have to do 
to get there?" — Hyde develops wisdom and self-knowledge and helps youngsters to begin 
to fulfill their destinies. 

The Hyde Process 

Recent studies by Harvard University's Howard Gardner and others have shown 
that individuals differ in their personal profile of at least seven different forms of 
intelligences. Hyde has shown that to reach the unique potential of every student, the 
school must offer a comprehensive curriculum for growth, challenging each student in 
all areas of life — intellectually, physically, socially, emotionally, and spiritually (the 
"IPSES" model) — not just in those in which the student displays a particular talent. This 
means that all students must meet rigorous standards of effort and attitude not only in 
college preparatory academics, but also in co-curricular areas of performing arts, athletics, 
school leadership, and community service. Each student must be expected to take 
ownership for the success of the school community through regular jobs and through 
taking responsibility for the growth of other students. These diverse requirements are 
supplemented by a sophisticated program of self-reflection through journal ing and sharing. 

Hyde's curriculum for self-understanding results in increased readiness for 
academic rigor. Our experience confirms Horace Mann's advice that if he had a year to 
teach spelling, he'd spend the first nine months on motivation. Visitors to Hyde 
continually remark on the remarkable maturity and self-directednessof Hyde students. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 13 


The Hyde program includes required experiences in Academics; a Co-curriculum 
consisting of athletics, performing arts, school leadership, community service; and Family 
Learning. Each of these curricular areas is described in this section. The program 
includes structured experiences which build a sense of community and a sense of 
involvement with the school as a community. These are described below under the 
heading Building the School Community. In addition to these action experiences, 
students participate in reflective programs which are specifically designed to foster the 
development of students' self-knowledge. These reflective experiences are described below 
under a section entitled Reflection. Finally, we discuss some of the Systemic Reforms 
necessary to implement the Hyde program in the public schools. 

Before we discuss these specific aspects of the program, it will be helpful to 
explain some important aspects of Scheduling and Organization. 

Studies show that the most important structural feature of a successful school 
community is sizeP Hyde's own experience indicates that no high school grouping should 
be larger than 250 students. Ideally, a pilot year Hyde public school program will start 
with 150-200 students. As the program grows beyond 250 students, the school will be 
broken down into sub-schools of approximately 180-250 students, 15-18 teachers, and 3-5 
teaching interns.^ The faculty will be formed into four teams of four teachers, with each 

'' See, for example, the recent publications of the Chicago Consortium for School Research 
which discuss the early results of Chicago's radical site-based reform program (available 
from Professor Anthony S. Bryk, Center for School Improvement, University of Chicago, 
5835 S. Kimbark Ave., Chicago IL 60637). 

^The Hyde schools utilize interns to assist with orienting students to the expectations of 
the school and to assist teachers. The Hyde School in Bath generally attracts 4 or 5 
alumni interns each year who take a semester off from college or give a year after 
graduating from college. We expect several of these alumni interns to choose to help us 
with the Massachusetts project, and once the school has been in operation for a few years, 
we expect the Hyde Charter School of Massachusetts to generate its own alumni interns. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 14 

team responsible for teaching the 55-65 students at each grade level, and the other two 
teachers as floaters to handle foreign language instruction for the entire sub-school. Each 
sub-school will also broken up into advisory groups, with each teacher working with 12- 
15 students selected at random from all four grade-levels. This stmcture will ensure that 
teachers and students have the opportunity to build a community of trust within a larger 
school setting.^ 

A diverse program like Hyde creates all sorts of special demands on a school's 
schedule. Not only academics, but athletics, performing arts, community service, family 
learning, community-building activities, and reflection must be scheduled. This requires 
that at least one faculty member of each sub-school serve as a Director of Program, 
responsible for keeping his or her fmger on the pulse of the community and determining 
when to change the schedule to reflect the community's needs. One of the ways that the 
school schedule can maximize academic leaming is to group it into intensive periods of 
activity, when the mind is most alert and ready to learn. The Hyde program concentrates 
its academic program into the morning, and the afternoon is reserved for other activities, 
such as school meetings, advisory groups, performing arts, community service, and 
athletics. Every student is involved in these activities, which have traditionally been 

These interns are usually given room and board and a small stipend. We also try to work 
our college credits for those interns contemplating a career in education. 

^Teacher teams meet at least twice weekly to discuss curricula and issues of particular 
students' growth. This is in addition to a weekly school-wide faculty meeting in which 
issues of scheduling, curriculum, or teaching strategies may be discussed. This use of 
teams of teachers to teach groups of students is similar to the approach advocated by 
Theodore R. Sizer in his Horace's School (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1992). Sizer's 
Coalition for Essential Schools has grown rapidly to over 150 schools. Hyde's program 
differs from these schools in two major respects: 1) our goal is the entire growth of the 
youngster, not just cognitive development; and 2) the Hyde principles infuse the academic 
program so that it becomes a means for self-knowledge and wisdom, not just academic 
knowledge and skills. Sizer himself indicates the high value of these "non-intellectual" 
forms of growth in his book, where he speaks of "habits of thoughtfulness." These 
"habits," we contend, are the rudimentary forms of character and wisdom. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 15 

termed "extracurricular," during their Hyde education. Because ail students and teachers 
participate in sports, the entire school community stays at school until sports practices or 
competitions are concluded — usually 4:30 or 5:00. 

A. What are the school's broad academic objectives for student learning? 

The key to understanding the Hyde academic program is to see it as part of a 
larger program designed to develop the unique potential of students. The classroom does 
not operate in a vacuum; rather, the teacher sees him or herself as furthering the goals of 
the school program, and Hyde teachers will often allow these larger programmatic goals 
to enter into the development of day-to-day lessons and to determine reactions to 
unplanned classroom situations such as student disruption, school issues, or world and 
community events. 

So Hyde relates academics to the student's own unique potential and character 
growth: English as a primary means to draw out the humane potentials of the student; 
mathematics to draw out reasoning and leadership potentials; geography, foreign 
languages, history and science to help the student relate his or her individuality to a larger 
picture that includes other cultures, civilization and even life itself. As these connections 
are established, the student will eventually pursue academic excellence as a means to 
achieve personal excellence. 

We envision this development as occurring in a continuous improvement through 
four stages of growth— known as the "EEMO" model: "Excellence," "Effort," 
"Motions," and "Off-Track." Some students begin school "Off-Track" — ^they are unable 
or unwilling to participate in the school's program. Through a rigorous system of student- 
run "concern meetings," discipline and accountability, the off-track student is convinced to 
move into the next stage: he begins to go through the "Motions" of responsible behavior. 
In this stage, the teacher provides the major initiative and the student willingly follows. 
Gradually the student moves into the "Effort" stage, in which the student and teacher 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 16 

operate as a team. Finally, students begin to strive for "Excellence": the student now 
provides the major initiative and the teacher acts as a guide. ^^ 

There are 10 Basic Guidelines for teachers in the Hyde academic program: 

1. Put character first. 

2. Focus on continuous improvement toward excellence for every student. 

3. Emphasize the importance of attitude and effort. 

4. Understand the unique potential of each student. 

5. Incorporate the Hyde principles into teaching and curriculum. 

6. Make academics a shared experience between teacher and student. 

7. Use performance evaluation to determine goals and content. 

8. Prepare every student for learning beyond secondary school. 

9. Build on students' success in all areas of the school. 

10. Use the subjects to foster students' self-knowledge. 

Academic classes are graded according to both effort and achievement. Final 
course grades are an average of effort and achievement grades. Hyde students are 
unanimous in their belief that this system of grading is fairer than grades which reflect 
achievement alone. Students come to absorb the ethic that comparisons among students 
in terms of academic abilities are pernicious; that all students are of equal value; that all 
students can excel. 

Every student participates in a college preparatory curriculum which will allow the 
freedom to choose a path toward further learning upon completion of secondary school. 
We know that students will not acquire academic skills and knowledge until they are ready 
to learn, so most of the purpose of early academic experiences at Hyde is to foster 
motivation and academic curiosity, as well as to teach basic skills of learning — including 

i°For more information on the EEMO model, see pamphlet entitled "Building Blocks" in 
Exhibit C. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School ' February 15, 1994 Page 17 

note-taking, listening skills, reading for understanding, computer skills, and asking 
questions when material is not clear. (Special classes may be set up during students' first 
year at Hyde so that they can concentrate on these basic learning skills. Similarly, special 
summer classes will be offered for admitted students who need some attention to catch up 
to their peers' skill levels. The key, as Professor Henry Levin of Stanford University says, 
is to accelerate, not remediate. These skills are best learned through interaction in a rich 
learning environment which, like the main academic program at Hyde, is project-based.) 
As the basic skills are mastered, the academic program begins to explore the connections 
between cultural artifacts and individual student growth, with continual attention to the 
development of each student's own self-understanding. 

Since the primary purpose of the school is to help youngsters answer the 
questions — "Who am I?"; "Where am I going with my life?"; and "What do I have to do 
to get there?," — the academic program at Hyde helps students see academics as extensions 
of the self, as aids to self-understanding. Students' personal experiences become a point of 
departure for reflection on the broad range of human experience, as contained in the 
academic disciplines. In this way, connections are made across subject areas, and different 
ways of knowing are compared and contrasted in a tangible manner. 

The Hyde School experience shows, and studies concur, that the competitive spirit 
present in many schoolrooms is not conducive to learning. Hyde students have accepted 
the principle of Brother's Keeper — "We help others achieve their best" — so helping one 
another learn is not only allowed but required in the program. Teachers are encouraged 
to use various methods which are successful with heterogeneous groupings, such as 
cooperative learning, team learning, peer tutoring, and extra help sessions for those 
experiencing difficulty. ii 

^1 See Robert E. Slavin's "Cooperative Learning and the Cooperative School," 
Educational Leadership (November 1987), pages 7-13. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 18 

Each grade-level team includes teachers trained in English, mathematics, history, 
science (as appropriate to grade-level), and foreign language.^^ These teams are 
responsible for developing an appropriate day-to-day curriculum for their students (in 
keeping with the grade-level's theme and consistent with the guidelines offered above) 
which will prepare the students for the performance evaluations at the end of the year and 
for world class standards. 

Each year of the Hyde secondary school curriculum is organized around four 
interdisciplinary themes. The freshman year is focused on issues relating to the world as a 
whole (including world history, world geography, world literature, and earth science; also 
algebra); the sophomore curriculum is oriented toward the western world (with western 
history including the exploration of the Americas, western literature, geography; also 
biology and geometry); the junior year focuses on the American experience (with U.S. 
History, U.S. geography, and American literature; along with chemistry and second year 
algebra); and the senior year is focused on the individual and the community (with 
emphasis on the modem condition in the study of literature, government, and philosophy; 
along with physics and advanced mathematics including calculus). These grade-level 
themes will be carried over into the teams that will be formed in the Hyde Charter School 
project, but the individual members of teams and the specific content of each team's 

^2 In keeping with our experiences at the private Hyde School in Bath, Maine, we will not 
require our teachers to be certified to teach in traditional public schools. Instead, all 
teachers will be required to have completed a four-year degree with a major in one of the 
disciplines. This course of study often provides a better preparation for teaching at the 
high school level than does the program which satisfies all teacher certification 
requirements. Teachers at the Hyde Charter School will be encouraged to pursue 
advanced education if they have not done so already, whether leading to the M.Ed, or to a 
master's degree in their discipline. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 19 

curriculum will vary depending upon the specific needs of the students and the resources 
of the team.^^ 

Academic progress is evaluated with a mix of traditional examinations and 
performance evaluation. The specific design of this evaluation mix will be up to the 
individual team. Each team develops a set of required performances — "exhibitions," as 
Ted Sizer calls them^'^ — ^geared to grade-level themes. In one team at Hyde School Bath, 
for example, each student in the eleventh grade is required to give a fifteen-minute 
presentation near the end of the year on a "unique idea pertinent to the American 
experience." These presentations are videotaped, and the videotape is shown to the entire 
team of students and is kept as part of the student's permanent portfolio. Whenever 
students give presentations during the year (and this happens on a monthly basis in many 
classes), these presentations are videotaped for inclusion in the student's file. 

The organization of the school into team-taught groups allows each team to spend 
effort on the collective growth issues of each group of students. At Hyde School, each 
class spends time defining a set of goals and objectives for their grade-level, in terms of 
character, leadership, academic skills, knowledge, and school involvement. Each student's 
individual progress toward these goals is discussed — and evaluated on the EEMO scale — 
by the entire group on a regular basis, thus contributing toward the larger goal of 
continuous improvement for every student. Teachers work hard to know about each 

^^The Hyde Charter School will use curricular materials which are based upon problem- 
solving and critical thinking. We especially urge the use of the mathematics curriculum 
developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, and available 
through Scott, Foresman. Teachers will utilize such visionary books as Paul Gagnon's 
Democracy's Untold Story: What World History Textbooks Neglect {W^zshin^on: 
American Federation of Teachers, 1987), R. Pratte's The Civic Imperative: Examining the 
Need for Civic Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 1988) and James Moffett 
and Betty Jane Wagner's Student-Centered Language Arts and Reading, K-13: A 
Handbook for Teachers (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983). 

^'^ See his Horace's School: Redesigning the American High School (Boston: Houghton 
Mifflin, 1992). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School ■ February 15, 1994 Page 20 

student's participation in the co-curriculum, family learning, and school community aspects 
of the program, and to build upon the successes of students in these other areas of the 

B. Describe any non-academic goals for student performance. 

The Hyde concept, as we have mentioned, is built upon the view that character 
comes before academics in educational priority. Even the academic program puts its 
primary emphasis on the development of character. This is equally true of the non- 
academic program — ^which at Hyde is not "extra-curricular"; rather, activities in athletics, 
performing arts, community service, family learning, and reflection are termed co- 
curricular to emphasize their importance in the overall program for unique potential. 


Every Hyde School (Bath) student participates in three seasons of interscholastic 
sports, with the expectation that at least one of these seasons will be in a sport for which 
the student has had no prior experience. The experience of competing in contests of 
physical prowess and teamwork has been proven to be one of the primary contributors to 
student character growth. In Hyde public schools, where the sheer numbers of students 
may preclude every student's involvement in interscholastic competition during every 
season, students may be given the option of participating in intramural athletic programs 
during one or two seasons, but every student is expected to have an interscholastic 
athletic experience each year. Specific strategies for putting this principle into practice 
are worked out in each public school program. 

Performing Arts 

The Hyde School experience shows that performing arts can become an incredibly 
powerful agent for the growth of students, and Hyde teachers believe that involvement 
with performing arts should not be limited to students who display native talent or interest. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 21 

Rather, every Hyde student is involved in performing arts, with each student taking part in 
student-directed school-wide performances to which parents and community are invited. . 

The Hyde performing arts program evolved out of Hyde School's experiences in 
the mid-1970s. Some students and faculty decided to put on a show for the bicentennial, 
which was known as "America's Spirit." This program electrified audiences all over the 
eastern United States — performing in such places as the Kennedy Center in Washington 
and on Broadway in New York City. Since this success, performing arts has become a 
regular part of the Hyde program, with time being set aside each week for planning, 
design, and rehearsals, leading to performances in other schools in the winter and spring. 
"The Show" as it is referred to in-house, is also performed for parents during the spring 
Family Weekend, and for community members on the evening before graduation. 

Some portions of "The Show" are put together by the academic teams to reflect 
the content of their experiences in the classroom. For example, a sophomore team may 
put together a drama segment on the era of European exploration, or a senior team may 
perform a dance which highlights the struggles of adolescents creating self-identities which 
are distinct from their parents. 

Community Service 

The Hyde School experience indicates that every person jx)ssesses deep instincts 
to help others, and the Hyde program shows that every student and teacher grows from 
involvement in service activities in the larger community. This is one way for students to 
envision their future roles in society, and it also allows for contact between students and 
groups of people outside their immediate experience. Service opportunities include 
visiting the elderiy, working in soup kitchens, cleaning up public spaces, Big Brother/Big 
Sister-type programs (at Hyde School, these programs are known as KRK — Kids 
Reaching Kids), and working with younger children in neighborhood schools. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 22 

Family Learning 

Perhaps the most unique aspect of the Hyde program is Family Learning. Parents 
are not merely "involved" in their youngsters' education; rather, partnts participate in their 
own learning program designed to help them (and therefore their children) to reach deeper 
potentials. In an earlier era, when many American communities were relatively 
homogenous, the families within a school's neighborhood could be relied upon to provide 
predictable support for the mission of the public school. This allowed the educational 
program to be centered in the school. But today, when these assumptions about families 
no longer hold, the school and its teachers must assume a different role: partners to the 
parents in the home, providing support and assistance to what is the most difficult job in 
the world: raising a child. ^^ 

Many youngsters are not being raised in a traditional family configuration of father 
and mother, brothers and sisters all living in the same location. A student's parents may be 
unavailable; instead, there may be a guardian, an older relative, foster parents, or some 
other adult as the primary caregiver. In certain circumstances, the legal guardian or parent 
may refuse to participate in the Family Leaming program. In these cases, it is important to 
realize that Hyde doesn't mandate which adult needs to be involved; rather, the program 
requires that at least one responsible adult, significant to the youngster's growth and 
development, must agree to participate. As mentioned above, in the case where a student 
wants to become involved in the Hyde program, but cannot persuade any adults to 
participate, Hyde school program personnel will work with the student and with 
community groups to find someone willing to serve this mentoring role. 

^^ For further discussion of the need for school participation in the growth of families, see 
statement by Professor James S. Coleman, professor of sociology and education at the 
University of Chicago and a member of The Hyde Foundation Board of Advisors, in 
Appendix I. Coleman's statement reflects the wisdom of the African saying, "It takes a 
village to raise a child." 

Creating the Hyde Charter School - February 15, 1994 Page 23 

Each Hyde Charter School parent will participate in a program involving regular 
meetings with other parents, one intensive weekend experience per year (known as a 
"Family Learning Center" or FLC), and family weekends in the autumn, winter, and 
spring. The purpose of these parent- and family-centered meetings is for parents to focus, 
separately and as a family, on issues of character and personal growth.^^ While this in 
itself is an important reward, the underlying rationale for requiring parental participation is 
that "the apple doesn't fall far from the tree"; that is, a youngster does not often progress 
beyond the expectations and deeper commitments of his or her parents. ^"^ 

The Family Learning curriculum includes: use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 
to help families see how personality differences may lead to different strategies for 
reaching the family's vision; experiential exercises ("new games," etc.) which build 
community and trust; joumaling questions designed to help parents to reflect upon their 
own growth and their vision for the family; lessons and discussions on aspects of the Hyde 
concept; separate seminars for parents and students in which participants are encouraged 
to honestly assess the level of trust and communication within their family; and sessions in 
which parents and youngsters read letters to each other which discuss issues of personal 
and family growth. ^^ 

i^The 60 Minutes segment on Hyde School, called "The Hyde Solution," which is 
included in the supplementary materials as Exhibit A, gives a good overview of how the 
school fosters this family growth. 

1"^ A skeptic might argue that it will be impossible to get many parents involved in this 
program. But we argue that if we can get parents at a boarding school to participate in a 
program for parental growth (which includes three visits annually to Hyde School), then 
we should be able to do it in a public school community, where the parents are close by. 
We are supported in this expectation by the 65 percent of parents who participate in any 
given event at the Hyde Leadership School of Greater New Haven. (This compares with 
three percent at any event in the other public schools in New Haven.). 

18 For more information on the content of the Hyde Family Learning program, see the 
Letter to Parents from the Hyde School Director of Family Learning, included in 
Appendix 4. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 24 

Building the School Community 

Educators and educational researchers have known for some time that schools 
function better when there is a unity of purpose, a cohesive community devoted to over- 
arching ideals and objectives. Much of this knowledge about effective schools has been 
supported in the experiences of Hyde School, where the willingness to innovate to develop 
unique potential has led the faculty, students, and parents to develop some unique 
approaches to fostering community. Some involve the sharing of certain experiences by 
students and teachers with the entire school. Others include the experience by all students 
of a rigorous academic program, participation in interscholastic sports, and the performing 
arts program, which is probably the most effective community-builder of all. Because 
each member of the community has made a commitment to follow the five principles, each 
person can count on the support of every other member. Students who cannot live up to 
their commitment may find themselves involved in a "concern meeting" with other 
students and faculty, in which the student's attitude and effort are evaluated. Some 
students who need extra support may be invited into school for the Saturday "Breakfast 
Club," in which the student and his or her parents participate in a seminar with other 
students, parents, and faculty. In addition, Hyde has developed a set of school rituals — 
"rites of passage" — ^in which all students participate as they pass through their Hyde 
career. These include the admissions interview, the summer challenge orientation 
program, the audition, the advisory groups, an "outpost" experience, the senior 
evaluations, and graduation. 

• The admissions interview is required of all students and families who wish to 

participate in the Hyde program. This is not like a traditional admissions interview 
in that its purpose transcends the formal decision as to whether or not the student 
is accepted into the school; it also provides an opportunity for both students and 
parents to assess their own commitment to the program and to indicate what level 
of participation the school can expect from them.^^ 


For more on the interview, see Section 6, "Admissions Policy," below. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 25 

• The Hyde summer challenge orientation program helps build a sense of 
community before the start of the regular school year. Teachers and new students 
attend the summer program. It includes various Outward-Bound-type challenges 
for each advisory group as well as an introduction to the Hyde "seminar," in which 
members of advisory groups share their growth issues with other members of the 
group. Each group of summer students also produces a show which is performed 
for the students' parents at the end of the program. The initial Hyde Charter 
School summer challenge will be given as a two-week boarding program on the 
Hyde School's campus in Maine. This will allow the school to "get off on the right 

• Early in every school year, every Hyde student is required to perform an audition. 
This entails getting up on stage in front of the assembled student body and faculty 
and singing a short solo, a cappella. The ostensible purpose of this is to find out 
how much singing confidence each student has, but the underlying purpose is to 
build a sense of community: if every person within a community does something 
which is perceived as difficult, and every student succeeds, a broad sense of 
accomplishment and satisfaction is evident within the school. 

• Every Hyde student is a member of an advisory group. Each Hyde teacher is 
responsible for overseeing the programs of 12-15 students, for monitoring the 
students' progress, for communicating regularly with their advisees' parents, and 
for serving as their advocate in the program. These groups meet regularly during 
the year to build a sense of trust, to share personal growth issues, and to plan 
future challenges. 

• Every Hyde student, at some point in his or her school career, participates in a 
outpost experience. This is usually a three to four day wilderness or residential 
experience in which students, together with other members of their advisory 
group, build upon their understanding of the Hyde concept, develop their 
leadership skills, and grow in self-confidence. These trips are led by experienced, 
certified trip leaders.^o 

• Toward the end of the senior year, faculty and seniors meet on a regular basis to 
discuss each senior's growth. These senior evaluations become one of the more 
intense experiences of a Hyde student's career, providing an opportunity for each 

20 One extremely effective "outpost" was held for the students in the Gardiner-Hyde 
program. The students, in groups of 15-20, bussed down to Boston for a long weekend 
including an urban scavenger hunt, museum visits, and lodging in Hyde alumni parent 
homes. Many of the Gardiner students had never been to a big city, and the trips were 
seen as a wonderful community-builder for them and their colleagues. The students at the 
Hyde Charter School, who may be quite experienced in urban living, would probably get 
more out of a wilderness experience. These will be designed and conducted by teams of 
local teachers to fit the needs of the students. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 26 

student to reflect openly on their adolescent period and to assess the level of their 
maturity and readiness to take over responsibility for their lives. Each senior is 
evaluated by all of his or her peers and the faculty, with the final objective of 
helping each senior to decide their graduation status.^i 

• Each senior who decides to accept a Certificate or Diploma gives a two-minute 

speech at graduation. There are no "valedictorians" or "salutatorians" in a Hyde 
program; every graduating senior is entitled to a "moment of fame" in which the 
community puts its collective attention on that student and listens to a personal 
assessment of growth and challenges. Each senior's family and guests stand during 
the speech to symbolize the hard work and commitment of parents, siblings, and 
other significant persons contributing to the student's graduation.22 

Together, these community-building rituals make Hyde a school that imprints — that 

develops a communality of purpose and commitment which results in a highly effective 

and cohesive school community. 


The Hyde program is designed to be challenging, and it works. Students and 
faculty stretch their perceived limits. This stretching is essential for the actualization of 

21 At Hyde School, all graduating seniors do not receive the same credential. Rather, 
seniors decide for themselves whether they are ready for a Hyde Diploma or would rather 
take a Certificate or Document. The Diploma signifies that "this person is ready to live his 
or her life according to standards of personal excellence"; usually only 30-40 percent of 
graduating seniors believe that they are ready for this level of graduation. A Certificate 
certifies that the student has made significant character and academic growth, and that he 
or she is committed to continuing this growth curve after leaving the school. A Document 
is chosen by those seniors who believe, on the advice of faculty and students, either that 
they have not made significant character growth at Hyde or that they are unwilling to 
make a commitment to continuing their growth beyond Hyde. In a successful Hyde 
program, the number of students who will choose a Document will be minimal. (All three 
levels satisfy requirements for college admission.) 

When a senior is not ready for graduation, the Hyde program encourages the senior to 
return to the school as a "leadership" student, tidying up their academic skills, knowledge, 
and taking risks of personal growth by involving himself or herself in the growth of 
younger students. At Hyde School, the leadership year has been a significant experience 
for a few students each year, resulting in their leaving high school more confident and 
more ready to confront the challenges of college or the world of work. 

22 See appendix III for a sample of recent graduation speeches. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School 

February 15, 1994 

Page 27 

potentials. But learning consists of more than just the experience of challenges. In 
addition, people need to be taught to reflect on these experiences, to assimilate them into 
their self-understandings, so that they can adopt and adapt to new information about the 
self. As the ancient Greeks inscribed on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, the prime 
imperative is rvoxr}L UsavTov — "Know Thyself." 

Hyde's approach to developing self-knowledge is reflected in the Action- 
Reflection Cycle: 

Step 1. First, we act in response to the challenges of our environment; 
Step 2. Then, we assess the results of our action and reflect on the lessons; 
Step 3. Finally, we repeat the process, gradually developing a deeper and 
more accurate sense of our selves and our potentials.^^ 
It took the Hyde School community several years and lots of trial and error to 
discover the importance of reflection for growth. In the mid-1980s, several members of 

23 This Action-Reflection Cycle builds upon John Dewey's concept of "educative 
experience," which he developed in Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the 
Philosophy of Education (New York: Free Press, 1916)). It is also remarkably similar to 
W. Edward's Deming's PDCA cycle: Plan, Do, Check, Act. This is why the Hyde 
program is so conducive to an emphasis on continual improvement. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 28 

the school faculty were introduced to the "intensive" journaling process of Ira Progoff; 
this method of reflection has since become a key foundation of the Hyde program. Many 
teachers use journaling as a tool in their academic curricula; in addition, the entire school 
journals once a week on a series of questions or issues posed by the director of studies. 
Once the group has had the opportunity to write in reaction to the questions, an 
opportunity is given for members of the community who wish to publicly share their 
writings. This has the effect of building community by giving students and faculty a look 
at the deeper selves of their compatriots.^"* 

Another builder of community and of reflective skills in the Hyde program is the 
school meeting. The entire school community meets weekly to discuss issues before the 
school or issues of personal growth. This meeting serves as a sort a "Town Meeting" in 
which "citizens" can voice their concerns and work together to make decisions which are 
relevant to the life of the community. Often, one of the five character words, principles, 
or lessons will be selected, and volunteers will share experiences which are relevant to that 
topic. Other meetings focus on Hyde School's ethics,^^ student or faculty fears, family 
issues, sex, drug abuse, special holidays, etc. These occasions can be very powerful, and 
give each person insight into the Hyde process and into their own growth. 

2"* More information about Progoff s intensive journaling method is available by contacting 
Dialogue House at 80 East 11th Street, New York, NY 10003-6035. 

2^ Unlike most schools, which have elaborate systems of rules which fill student 
handbooks, Hyde has only five rules, which are called the "Ethics." These are: No lying, 
cheating, or stealing; no smoking, alcohol, or drugs; every student is his brother's keeper; 
no premature sexual relations, and students will act like ladies and gentlemen. The 
"brother's keeper" ethic is the most difficult for most adolescents: it places a positive 
obligation on each student to help other students achieve their best. See pamphlet on 
"Discipline at Hyde School" in Exhibit C. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 29 

C. What type of community environment do you hope to foster at your school? 

We have already spoken of the importance within the Hyde community of 
commitment, shared vision, and living by principles. At Hyde, the purpose of the school 
as an institution is the creation of community. The school is the means to the end of 
community-building. As mentioned above, we adhere to the African saying, "It takes an 
entire village to raise a child." Hyde produces a "village" with strong shared beliefs and 
shared experiences; this village serves to educate and to ameliorate the effects of 
community fragmentation and isolation which plague contemporary America. 

The importance of a shared commitment cannot be overstated. For this reason, 
two systemic reforms are essential for Hyde to operate successfully within the public 
school sector. Both of these reforms are built into the Massachusetts Charter School 
legislation. The first is at least a limited degree of choice so that parents and students who 
are in the program have made a commitment to be there, and the second is site-based 
decision-making so that the faculty and administration in a Hyde program school can 
control the allocation of educational resources within their own school. 

Choice is being touted as a new educational panacea. But as a recent Rand study 
makes clear, choice is only half the answer: still needed are "focus" schools with specific 
programs and visions. ^^ The Hyde program will provide such schools. Because the Hyde 
program asks for new levels of participation from parents, it is expected that many families 
will choose not to be involved, at least initially. Parents are accustomed to playing only a 
supporting role in public schools: serving on PTCs, helping with fund-raising, perhaps 
helping with homework. Considering how pressed for time many American families are 
becoming, convincing some of these parents to make a larger commitment to their 
youngsters' schooling may be difficult. But some parents — as we saw in Springfield, 

26 See Paul T. Hill, Gail E. Foster, and Tamar Gendler's High Schools of Character (Santa 
Monica, CA: Rand Publications, Inc., 1990). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 30 

Gardiner, and New Haven — will jump at the opportunity to play a larger role in their 
youngster's school program. These families may make up the majority of the initial group 
in any Hyde implementation. Gradually, as other parents begin to see that the Hyde 
program is having a greater effect on the motivation, character, and achievement of the 
students, we expect interest to dramatically grow — as it has at Hyde School. 

FAST is committed to site-based decision-making as an essential systemic 
reform which will allow for school faculties to control the allocation of educational 
resources within their schools, thus empowering teachers and encouraging ownership and 
participation.^"^ Just as the FAST only advises the faculty at each implementation site — 
rather than dictating the specific academic content and/or methods to be used — FAST will 
encourage each Hyde program site to continuously improve their own school design and 
to use innovation as needed to deal with the specific circumstances of their district. 
Continuous improvement of the community and institution — modeled after W. Edwards 
Deming's Total Quality Management — is a natural counterpoint to the development of 
each person's unique potential, and FAST — ^with the help of Williamsburg, VA consultant 
Irving Stubbs^s — ^will provide the faculty at the Hyde Charter School with specific training 
in the methods of continuous improvement. 


Modem man could find no clearer expression for his dissatisfaction with the 
world, for his disgust with things as they are, than by his refusal to assume, in 

2'^ Site-based management is advocated in M.I.T.'s Education That Works: An Action Plan 
for the Education of Minorities (Cambridge: Quality Education for Minorities Project, 

28 Stubbs has worked with all of FAST's projects. He is a pioneer in training companies in 
TQM. See his book Making It Better (Williamsburg: Quality Books, 1991). Stubbs' 
involvement with Hyde School (Bath) has resulted in the development of a comprehensive 
Systems Chart which can serve as a template for further expansion of the Hyde concept 
and process. See the pamphlet "Hyde as a System" in Exhibit C. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 31 

respect to his children, responsibility for all this. It is as though parents daily said: 
"In this world even we are not very securely at home; how to move about in it, 
what to know, what skills to master, are mysteries to us too. You must try to 
make out as best you can; in any case you are not entitled to call us to account. 
We are innocent, we wash our hands of you." —Hannah Arendt^^ 

A. Why is there a need for this type of school? 

Many of America's youth are out of control. We cannot blame the kids themselves 
for this. American adults-educators, policy-makers, parents-must bear the blame and the 
responsibility for doing something about it. Hyde offers an alternative to the many failed 
educational reforms of the past generation. By building on the parents as the primary 
teachers, the home as the primary classroom, and the primary focus of schools as 
Character First™, the Hyde approach helps all participants in the educational process to 
break out of the unhelpful patterns into which they have fallen. 

American education used to be the envy of the world. This is still true in some 
areas and in some schools. Certainly our elite research universities continue to attract 
international attention and imitation. But our secondary schools-especially large, 
"comprehensive" high schools in urban centers-have become places of violence, fear, and 
youth culture group-think. 

To take back our schools from this youth culture, American parents need first to 
focus on themselves. Why have they allowed their adolescents to become so off-track? 
At Hyde, many parents realize that their parenting suffers from insufficient understanding 
of the childrearing process, and from hidden agendas related to "skeletons in the closet" 
from their own growing-up. The Hyde Family Learning Center helps parents to 
understand and then to "let go" of their own parents so that they can begin to focus on the 
unique potential of their own children. Only by accepting the Hyde principles, especially 
the destiny premise that "each person is gifted with a unique potential which defines a 

'^^ Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought (Penguin Books: 
Hammondsworth, England; 1968, 191). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 32 

destiny" and the humility principle that "we believe in a power and a purpose beyond 
ourselves," are parents able to both "let go" and assume their proper level of responsibility 
in raising their children. 

The Hyde experience shows that adolescents do not want to live without adult 
supervision, under the perverse requirements of contemporary youth culture. They want 
guidance, and they want high expectations. This guidance and these expectations are not 
possible without the development of a school community based on a shared commitment 
to transcendent principles." The Hyde principles are universally accepted by Hyde students 
as the ideals by which they should conduct their own lives. The principles of Truth — 
"Truth is our primary guide" — Conscience — "We attain our best through character and 
conscience" — ^,and Brother's Keeper — "We help others achieve their best" — ^provide the 
kind of guidance which helps adolescents to escape the youth culture's focus on treating 
adults with distrust and scorn, "sucking it up" even in the face of intuitions that activities 
are immoral, and the "protection" schemes which keep kids from "narcing" on one 

B. Explain why a charter school would help to effectively address this need. 

We have already explained why Hyde needs to be built upon the systemic reforms 
of choice and site-based decision-making. We also discussed the difficulties encountered 
when Hyde was instituted within a traditional public school in a traditional public school 
district (Gardiner, Maine) and the dramatic hope generated when an entire building has 
been devoted to the Hyde concept (New Haven). For these reasons, the charter school 
model is perfect for making the Hyde opportunity available to Massachusetts public school 
students and for creating an educational beacon to be modeled elsewhere in 

Creating a Hyde school requires a tremendous amount of change from students, 
teachers, and parents. Traditional schooling works against this kind of change. Union 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 33 

contracts are written to define in advance the expectations of teachers and other staff 
members. Parents are generally unwelcome in the school except on special evenings or in 
closely restricted roles. Students get into habits which make it hard for them to grow. 

Personal growth into the unknown reaches of unique potential requires the 
formation of a new kind of school community, one which is clearly incompatible with 
mainstream American schools. We know that such school communities can be created, 
given the right legal and regulative environment. The Massachusetts Charter School 
legislation seems specifically designed to make this possible. 

Once the Hyde Charter School has been set up, we expect it to show that this is a 
better way for all children. We expect the Hyde Charter School to become a beacon of 
hope for the other schools within the Commonwealth. Our 28 years of experience 
convinces us that Hyde will begin to revolutionize the entire educational system. 

How will we know it works? There are a number of different ways to gauge the 
success of the program which has been developed at Hyde School (Bath). Much of the 
evidence is anecdotal, coming from former students, parents, teachers, and visitors.^o 
Another measure of the school's success is that despite the fact that many Hyde students 
are at risk of dropping out of school when they arrive, 100 percent of Hyde School 
graduating seniors have actually been accepted to accredited four-year colleges since 
1986. The Hyde program is also successful in getting parents involved. Between 95 and 
100 percent of parents typically attend the Hyde Family Weekends in the fall and spring. 
Similar success is slowly being accomplished at the Hyde Leadership School of Greater 
New Haven, where parental participation has now reached 66 percent. 

But numbers can never capture the success with which the Hyde program has 
changed the attitudes and characters of its students and parents. Only by visiting the 

30 See Appendix I for testimonials from former Hyde parents, students, and visitors to 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 34 

school and talking with current students and hearing their evaluations can one get a 
sufficient grasp of the differences between Hyde and other school programs. 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts evaluators are encouraged to come to Bath and New 
Haven and see the schools in action. A somewhat adequate substitute for the kind of 
direct experience of Hyde School is to read what Hyde graduates and parents have had to 
say about their Hyde experiences.^^ 

Yet another indication of the success of the Hyde School experiment has been 
enthusiasm generated in the local and national media. NBC's The Today Show featured 
Hyde in 1974, 1978, and 1993, and was impressed with the depth at which the Hyde 
program was touching the students. Also during the 1970s, Hyde School appeared on 
both the Phil Donahue Show and the David Susskind Show. CBS's 60 Minutes visited in 
1989 and was so impressed by what it saw that it called the program "The Hyde Solution" 
to the nation's educational problems. (A videotape of this 60 Minutes segment is enclosed 
as "Exhibit A.") The publication of Joseph Gauld's Character First has generated . 
considerable attention, with appearances by Gauld on radio shows nationally, and 
upcoming Hyde appearances on the Jerry Springer Show ^ndi America with Denis Wholly. 
Recent articles in iht National School Board News, The New Haven Register, and the 
Portland Press Herald, as well as earlier articles in the Washington Post and The New 
York Times, have discussed the Hyde program and chronicled its successes. Editorials 
have appeared concerning the Hyde concept in The Wall Street Journal and Education 
Week. Copies of a selection of these articles are included in Appendix V. 

The other source of support for our expectations for the Hyde Charter School 
comes from the realm of theory. While the Hyde School experiment proceeded mainly on 
the common sense and intuition of its Founder and the teachers involved, over the years it 

^^ See Appendix III for a selection of recent graduation speeches and Exhibit E for a 
booklet about Hyde experiences by former parents. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 35 

has become abundantly clear how much the Hyde approach is in sync with the best in 
philosophical, psychological, and sociological research. The next few pages explore some 
of this support. 

The Hyde Foundation's Board of Advisors contains a number of public figures 
who can attest to the solid foundation of the Hyde concept: sociologist and educator 
James S. Coleman of the University of Chicago; management specialist Warren G. Bennis 
of the University of Southern California; medical educator James W. Freston of the 
University of Connecticut. 

The Hyde Foundation's Director of Curriculum and Evaluation, Craig 
Cunningham, is currently developing an instrument to measure attitude changes associated 
with Hyde programs. The questionnaire — based on solid research into attitudinal 
change — has been field tested, and an initial administration given to the Hyde Leadership 
School of Greater New Haven students during this past summer's orientation. A second 
administration will take place this month, followed by a third at the end of the year. We 
will certainly make the reports of this evaluation available, to the Executive Office of 

Philosophical support . Support for the philosophical integrity of the Hyde concept 
can be found throughout the Western and Eastern philosophical traditions. Aristotle, 
Cicero, Buddha, John Stuart Mill, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and John Dewey were all 
"eudaimonists": they each agreed that every person possesses a unique set of personal 
potential excellences which define their destiny. The philosopher David Norton has 
explored these traditions in his Personal Destinies (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 
1976; see also his recent Democracy and Moral Development, Berkeley: University of 
California Press, 1991). After visiting Hyde in the winter of 1991, Norton wrote: 

"My on-site examination of operations at the Hyde School, Bath, confirmed that 
there, the development of good moral character is at least as important as academics. 
Self-discovery is promoted by exploration, by self-examination, and by dialogue; and 
much skilled attention is given to the cultivation of such virtues as honesty, integrity. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 36 

courage, temperance, fairness, and tenacity. My own work supports Hyde's 
contention that such traits of character as these are at least as important for successful 
living in the world as academics, when "success" is defined as living, not just an 
economically productive life, but a worthy life that is productive of moral, social, 
civic, and aesthetic values. "^^ 

Support for Hyde's emphasis on the development of a "community of commitment" 

around the unique potential concept is found in the work of Anthony Bryk, Philip Jackson, 

WiUiam Glasser, Robert N. Bellah, Gerald Grant, Sara Lawrence Lightfoot, and others.^^ 

Support from Studies of Child Development. The work of Howard Gardner makes 

it clear that people^differ in their intellectual potentials and the ways in which they learn. 

See especially his Frames of Mind: A Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic 

Books, 1983).^'* Gardner's work has been incorporated in the curriculum of the nationally 

32 See Appendix V for a copy of an article in the University of Delaware Magazine in 
which Norton discusses Hyde, as well as Appendix I for the complete text of the letter in 
which Norton evaluates the Hyde program. Further discussion of the importance of 
character in schooling is found in Betty Sichel's Moral Education: Character, Community, 
and Ideals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988), Of Human Potential by Israel 
Sheffler (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985), and Carol Gilligan's Mapping the 
Moral Domain (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988). 

33 See James Coleman and Thomas Hoffer's Public and Private High Schools: The Impact 
of Communities (New York: Basic Books, 1987); Bellah et ^\.'s Habits of the Heart: 
Individualism and Commitment in American Life (Berkeley: University of California 
Press, 1985) and the more recent The Good Society (New York: Knopf, 1991). See also 
Gerald Grant's The World We Created at Hamilton High (Cambridge: Harvard University 
Press, 1988), Philip Jackson's The Moral Life of Schools (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 
1993), and Sara Lawrence Lightfoot's The Good High School: Profiles of Character and 
Culture (New York: Basic Books, 1983). See also the works collected in the special 
issue of the American Journal of Education on "The Moral Life of Schools," edited by 
Anthony S. Bryk (96(2), 1988); Benjamin Bloom's A// Our Children Learning: A Primer 
for Parents, Teachers, and Other Educators (New York: McGraw Hill, 1981); Michael 
Rutter's Fifteen Thousand Hours: Secondary Schools and Their Effects on Children 
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979); and Kenneth A. Strike's "The Moral Role 
of Schooling in a Liberal Democratic Society," Review of Educational Research 17, 
edited by Gerald Grant (American Educational Research Association, 1991). 

3^* Gardner's latest book. The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools 
Should Teach (New York: Basic Books, 1991), also offers much that supports the Hyde 
program's emphasis on individual learning styles and the development of individual 

Creating the Hyde Charter Schcx)l _ February 15, 1994 Page 37 

famous Key School in Indianapolis, Indiana. The idea that each person has a unique 
internal source of motivation which must be tapped to foster academic excellence is 
explored in recent works by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi.^^ The importance of spiritual and 
moral growth for students (even for the very young) is addressed in the work of Robert 

Support from Studies of Academic Curricula . Hyde's emphasis on a required 
college preparatory academic curriculum for all students is based on the ancient idea of a 
"liberal education," which in turn is a response to the ideal of a well-rounded person 
knowing something about many different areas of study.^'' The ideal that all students 
should become well-rounded goes against the trend in recent decades for the American 
comprehensive "shopping mall" high school to offer an increasingly differentiated 
curriculum in which a liberal education was limited to the "elite" of a high school.^^ 

educational objectives. See also R. Sternberg and R. Wagner, Practical Intelligence 
(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985). 

3^ See his Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (New York: Harper and Row, 
1990), and Optimal Experience: Psychological Studies of Flow in Consciousness 
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), and Benjamin Bloom's Developing 
Talent in Young People (New York: Ballantine Books, 1985). See also Kevin 
Rathunde's "Family Context and Optimal Experience in the Development of Talent," 
(Ph.D. Thesis — University of Chicago Department of Psychology, Committee on Human 
Development, December 1989) which also supports the claim that strong parental 
participation is crucial for the development of a youngster's unique potential. 

3^ See Coles' The Moral Life of Children (Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1986) and The 
Spiritual Life of Children (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990. 

3'^This ideal is discussed in Bruce A. Kimball's Orators and Philosophers: A History of the 
Idea of a Liberal Education (New York: Teachers College Press, 1986); see also Herbert 
Kliebard's "The Liberal Arts Curriculum and Its Enemies," in Cultural Literacy and the 
Idea of General Education, 87th yearbook of the National Society for the Study of 
Education, edited by Ian Westbury and Alan C. Purves (Chicago: NSSE, 1988). 

^^ See Arthur G. Powell, Eleanor Farrar, David K. Cohen, The Shopping Mall High 
School: Winners and Losers in the Educational Marketplace (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 38 

Hyde's program also goes against the anti-egalitarian trend of creating separate "tracks" 
for different segments of students^^ ; rather, we assume that every student can master the 
college preparatory curriculum, and work to ensure that each student can do so.''^ This is 
in keeping with a wide range of "effective schools" research that shows that high 
expectations and standards and an undifferentiated instructional environment without 
tracking result in higher student achievement with lower variance.'*^ 

The Hyde program's use of teams of teachers addressing broad themes, and its 
emphasis on the development of students' je //-know ledge and wisdom, are supported in 
the work of Hazard Adams and also the recent work of Ted Sizer. Adams writes that 
knowledge is d^ process which comes from continual questioning of what we learn in light 
of what we have previously learned. This requires teachers to foster student questioning 
into: the underlying rationale of each discipline; the relationships among the various 
disciplines and the culture at large; and inquiry into the different ways that different 

^^ See Jeannie Oakes, Keeping Track: How Secondary Schools Structure Inequality (New 
Haven: Yale University Press, 1985). See also Rand CorpoidXion, Multiplying 
Inequalities: The Effects of Race, Social Class, and Tracking on Opportunities to Learn 
Mathematics and Science. (Santa Monica: Rand Publications, Inc., 1990). 

"^o Compare this quote by Joseph Schwab: "It is by.. .making no limiting a priori 
assumptions as to who are educable in respect of sounder views of knowledge and more 
complete modes of enquiry that we can find out how many can and how many cannot 
master them." Quoted in Ian Westbury, "Who Can Be Taught What? General Education 
in the Secondary School," in Cultural Literacy and the Idea of General Education, op cit. 

^^ See, e.g., James S. Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore, High School 
Achievement (New York: Basic Books, 1982); Susan J. Rosenholz's "Effective Schools: 
Interpreting the Evidence," American Journal of Education 93(3): May 1985; and T. 
Good and J. Brophy, "School Effects," in Handbook of Research on Teaching, edited by 
M. Wittrock (New York: MacMillan, 1986). Another example of such a successful 
approach is seen in the Accelerated Schools project at Stanford University. Its director, 
Hank Levin, has been advising The Hyde Foundation on the development of our public 
school projects. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 39 

disciplines may address the same questions.'*^ These questions infuse every Hyde 

Support from Other Studies of Schooling . Hyde's focus on family participation is 
supported by evidence in the "Coleman Report" and elsewhere that students' homes are 
often a more stable predictor of success in school than are the schools.'*^ Family members 
are primarily responsible for helping young people to envision themselves as good 
students.'*'* James Coleman's concept of "social capital" provides a framework for 
understanding why homes and parents might be so important for success in school.'*^ But 
schools which involve parents must be schools of choice, since this involvement (at least 
initially) must be voluntary. 

There are multiple supports for Hyde's focus on character as the foundation of 
academic and personal excellence. As the U.S. Department of Education's Ivor Pritchard 
has written, "...making good character a recognized educational standard introduces a 
non-competitive goal that is within the reach of many more students than is academic 
excellence. Consequently,... more students will have a good chance to succeed by this 
standard, resulting in less student alienation from school.'"*^ As Mark Holmes writes. 

'^^See especially Adams's "The Fate of Knowledge," in Cultural Literacy and the Idea of 
General Education, op cit. 

^'^ See James S. Coleman et al.. Equality of Educational Opportunity (Washington: US 
GPO, 1966). 

^'^C. Snow and J. Chall, Families and Literacy; The Contribution of Out-of-School 
Experiences to Children's Acquisition of Literacy (Cambridge: Harvard University 
Graduate School of Education, 1982). 

^^ See his Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 
especially chapter 12, and his Parental Involvement in Education, part of the "Policy 
Perspectives" series (Washington: US Department of Education, 1991). See also Anne 
Henderson's The Evidence Continues to Grow: Parent Involvement Improves Student 
Achievement (Columbia, MD: National Committee for Citizens in Education, 1987). 

'^^See Ivor Pritchard's "Character Education: Research Prospects and Problems" 
(American Journal of Education 96(4): 469-495, 1988). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 40 

"The beginning and end of a sustaining myth in education must lie in character. If we 
cannot collectively assert a consensual set of characteristics that we would like young 
people to gain, then mass education in the long run is not sustainable. ...Public education 
requires a societal vision. '"^"^ 

Support from Studies of Evaluation and Excellence . Stanford University's Lee 
Schulman and Elliot Eisner's recent work on educational evaluation supports the notion 
that evaluation must be continuous and performance-based, and also that since no 
individual teacher or student is exactly like any other, "standards" of evaluation are less 
likely to result in improvement than are "criteria" which are applied with a constant view 
toward the individual situation and the uniqueness of whomever is being evaluated.'*^ 

Recent evidence from the world of industry supports The Hyde Foundation's belief 
that an emphasis on continual improvement is essential for organizations (and individuals) 
to achieve excellence."*^ This is supported in the experiences of Superintendent Larrae 
Rocheleau in Sitka, Alaska and Jerry Arcaro of the Galileo Institute of Framingham, 
Massachusetts, in their work trying to institute "total quality management" in schools. 

In short, the Hyde process not only builds upon 28 years of school restructuring 
experience (in the "laboratory" of the Hyde School experiment), but also reflects sound 
educational research. When practices are successful, research will eventually get around 

^'^Mark Holmes, "The Fortress Monastery: The Future of the Common Core," in Cultural 
Literacy and the Idea of General Education, op cit. 

"^See especially Eisner's The Art of Educational Evaluation: A Personal View (London: 
Falmer Press, 1985) and The Enlightened Eye: Qualitative Inquiry and the Enhancement 
of Educational Practice (New York: MacMillan, 1991). See also Anthony S. Bryk's 
Stakeholder-Based Evaluation (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983). 

^^See W. Edwards Deming's Out of the Crisis (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986) and 
Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982); and Tom 
Peters and Robert H. Waterman's In Search of Excellence: Lessons From America's Best- 
Run Companies (New York: Warner Books, 1982). 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 41 

to the same understandings. This has happened in the field of education. James B. 
Conant's suggestion after World War II that schools become larger and more ■ 
comprehensive was a reflection of his age. American industry of that time was operating 
under the same paradigm: bigger is better; bureaucratic is more efficient; impersonal is less 
"emotional." Fortunately, those times have gone forever. W. Edwards Deming couldn't 
get a hearing in the American corporations of the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. Instead, he 
went to Japan, where his lessons have transformed Japanese industry into the envy of the 
world, while American corporations — many of them — have experienced a slow painful 
decline into obsolescence. But some American companies have managed to overcome the 
paradigm of mid-century. They are instituting teamwork, cutting bureaucracy, instituting 
principle-centered leadership, and concentrating on what they can control: the quality of 
the product and the spirit of the workplace. American schools deserve the same reforms. 
The Massachusetts Charter School legislation makes it possible to show them how. 


A. Describe the area where the school will be located. If a facility has already been 
secured, please state so. 

B. Why was this location selected? Are there other locations suitable to the needs and 
focus of the school? 

The first and foremost of Hyde's Five Principles is that each person is gifted with a 
unique potential which defines a destiny. This is a universal proposition, subject to no 
exceptions or variances. Indeed, taking this as a premise when dealing with any particular 
student or parent has been the key to Hyde School's success with so many who have not 
been well served elsewhere. For despite present behaviors or attitudes, Hyde holds that 
each person has something incomparably special and important about themselves that will, 
with proper nurture and discipline, emerge and form a destiny. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 42 

The universaHty of Hyde's principles means that the Hyde concept will work for all 
children and families in all places. Because the Hyde process is built upon principles and 
not procedures, Hyde is infinitely adaptable to suit the current needs of any constituency. 
The specific details of the Hyde program, described above, have been worked out over 28 
years of experience with a clientele consisting largely of adolescents and their parents, and 
the program suits that population quite well. While Hyde School (Bath) is largely 
populated by middle-class, suburban families, the school has also been quite successful 
with urban and rural families.^^ The Hyde Leadership School of Greater New Haven is 
demonstrating the basic foundations of this program also work quite well in a population 
which is primarily inner-city, with a majority of the families on some form of public 

We believe that a school staff which is devoted to the Hyde concept and to giving 
each family the flexible, spontaneous— yet disciplined— approach fostered by the Hyde 
principles can make the process work for any family. Currently, however, we see the 
primary need for this program in large urban areas. It is here that the strongest consensus 
has emerged that traditional mainstream education is failing; it is here that families are 
most "fed up" and most willing to try something completely new. It is here that we expect 
to be able to "sell" the Hyde concept most easily; it is here we expect the results of the 
Hyde process to be most impressive in the short-term. It is also here that our funding 
sources are most interested in helping us produce those results. Once we have proven that 
the process works in urban/suburban areas, the less critically desperate families of further- 
out suburbs and rural areas will, we believe, see its merits. 

Because of these considerations, we would like to set up the first Hyde Charter 
School in Massachusetts either in the greater Boston area or in the Springfield area, or 

^°See Appendix I for a letter from Charles Sikoriak, former education director for the 
Boy's Club of New York which describes our success with inner-city youngsters. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 43 

even eventually in both locations. Boston would be our first choice, and where we will 
initially concentrate our efforts to find a suitable site. (Since we have already built a 
constituency in the Springfield area, it will be relatively easy to move our efforts there if 
we should be unsuccessful in greater Boston.) We have several criteria for a site which is 

• meets code and provides a safe environment conducive to learning; 

• on public transportation lines; 

• accessible by both inner-city and suburban families (this means that a location 
on or near the boundary of Boston would be ideal); 

• facilities include performing arts space, athletic fields, gym, and suitable 
classroom space; 

• is available for lease at a reasonable price. 

We have already contacted the Catholic authorities in Boston for assistance in 
finding a closed or closing Catholic school which would be ideal for the Hyde Charter 
School. We are also working with some Realtors in the Boston area to locate possible 
sites. Once we are approved for a preliminary charter, we expect to find our site by Spring 
of 1995. 

The key issue, however, is not so much physical location as it is commitment in the 
surrounding community. Once we are granted a preliminary charter we will begin to 
publicize the opportunity for establishing the Hyde Charter School, and if a group of 
families approaches us from some other area of Massachusetts with a strong commitment 
to the Hyde concept, we would certainly consider locating there instead of Boston or 

C. Describe any unique characteristics of the student population to be served. 

As mentioned above, the most important characteristic of the ideal candidate for 
the Hyde process is a family that is committed to its growth and the growth of its 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 44 

members. The interview process (see "Admissions PoHcy," below) is designed to select 
only those families who have realized that they need help to reach their fullest potential. 
Commitment to fulfill potential is the one quality which is required to make the Hyde 
process work for any one family. 

Hyde defines "family" as "a growing child and a committed adult." This means 
that having a traditional nuclear family is definitely not a requirement for participation in 
the Hyde process. But because character is taught by example, what is required is that a 
youngster come to the Hyde process with an adult—whether it be a parent, an older 
sibling, an uncle or aunt, grandparent, friend, or other person—who is willing to go 
through the process with the youngster, sharing his or her own issues and struggles to 
serve as an example to the youngster. 

We recognize that not every child has an adult in his or her life who is willing to 
make this sort of commitment. If such a youngster has a sincere desire to participate in 
the Hyde process (and we have seen this situation both in Bath and in New Haven), the 
Hyde staff will work with the community to find a mentor. This is important not only to 
provide an example, but also because the Hyde process must continue twenty-four hours a 
day, and someone needs to be responsible to make sure that the Hyde ethics are respected 
outside of school hours. (In Springfield, we have already identified several community 
groups which are willing to serve in this mentoring role: the I Have A Dream Foundation, 
the North End Community Council, and the Springfield Urban League. We expect to find 
similar organizations in other communities.) 

D. What is the school's anticipated enrollment? 

E. What grade levels will be served? How many students are expected to be in each grade 
or grouping? 

We expect to start the first year of the Hyde Charter School with 175-225 students 
from the ninth, tenth, and eleventh grades. We will strive to get enrollment of at least 45 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 45 

students in each grade level to allow for a staff/student ratio of approximately 12 to 1. 
This enrollment will increase by 50-75 students each year resulting after 3 years in a 
school with 100 in each high school grade level. 

The team approach to teaching means that to go beyond 100 students in a grade 
level would mean setting up separate teams of teachers in that grade level. In other 
words, if the school was able to enroll 150 freshmen, it would be necessary to hire another 
team of teachers for the freshman year. It is expected that if the Hyde Charter School is 
successful, it will eventually spawn additional schools (or "teams" within a larger school) 
of 400 students each. 


A. Demonstrate how you will publicize the school to attract a sufficient pool of applicants. 

B. Specifically, what type of outreach will be made to potential students and their families? 

The Hyde Foundation has learned a number of lessons in the past few years of 
working with public school districts. Most importantly, we learned that public school 
students and their parents will find the Hyde program attractive. Over 650 eighth and 
ninth grade families made preliminary application to the Hyde Preparatory School of 
Springfield.^^ Over 300 interviews were conducted in Gardiner, and over 300 in New 
Haven, to select schools of 120-140 students. 

We have also learned other lessons which have guided the development of our 
current efforts, and these have been reflected in this proposal. Five of the most important 

^1 See Appendix V for newspaper articles about the Springfield effort, and Exhibit D for a 
brochure describing the Hyde Preparatory School of Springfield as it would have opened 
in the fall of 1991. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 46 

1. Involve community organizations. We found that we could get 
invaluable assistance for our efforts from local community 
organizations with an interest in families and education.^^ 

2. Use the local media. To avoid people forming mistaken initial 
impressions of our program, we relied heavily on radio, television, and 
newspaper coverage of our efforts in order to inform the community 
about the ways in which the Hyde program differs from traditional 

3. Use mass mailings. We have been quite successful in generating 
interest in the Hyde approach by sending literature about Hyde and 
invitations to promotional programs to families enrolled in local 

4. Use Hyde Sciiool. Perhaps the most impressive lesson of our 
Springfield, Gardiner, and New Haven experiences was the realization 
that the best spokespersons for the Hyde program are current and 
former Hyde students. We invited local teachers, students, and 
administrators up to Hyde School and allowed them to roam the 
campus and speak with students and faculty. Most effectively, we 
brought a cross-section of the entire Hyde School student body to each 
community for a series of music and dance performances in each of the 
towns' junior high schools. 

5. Involve parents from the start. We discovered early on in each 
community that there were some parents who immediately saw the 
value of the Hyde program, even though it requires a great deal from 
them. These parents became important allies in selling other parents 
and teachers on the program. We intend to look for this kind of 
assistance from parents in all our public school models. (During the 
spring preceding the opening of the Hyde Charter School, we will 
conduct a series of Family Learning Centers for those families who are 
most interested in the program. These PLCs will build the foundation of 
a critical mass of parents and students who are familiar with the Hyde 
process and who will help us to build the larger school community.) 

^2 In Springfield, the Urban League and the North End Community Council (an Hispanic 
group) were instrumental in spreading the word about the Hyde program. We also 
contacted professionals at Springfield College and American International College for 
support and insight into the local community. We were in the process of planning a 
collaboration on teacher education with both schools when the project was postponed. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 47 

These lessons form the backbone of our plans for generating the energy for school 
reform within local communities. We also learned about ih& process by which an outside 
organization will be able to become trusted partners in public school reform efforts. We 
will proceed in four stages: 

1. Extract initial interest and commitment. 

If successful, then: 

2-A. Expand the interest and commitment; 

2-B. Begin detailed program design with local stakeholders. 

If successful, then... 

3-A. Select initial teacher team; 

3-B. Proceed with student application process; 

3-B. Begin training in the Hyde process; 

3-C. Identify site and work out necessary operations. 

If successful, then... 

4-A. Proceed with pilot program; 

4-B. Continue training in the Hyde concept; 

4-C. Document and evaluate. 

Our primary "salesman" for step 1 is Joe Gauld, The Hyde Foundation's president. 

Gauld's 45 years of teaching experience, together with his unique ability to read people 

and to understand their deeper motivations, and the wisdom that he has gained fi-om prior 

reform efforts, make him a perfect spokesman for the Foundation and a "front man" for 

our school reform efforts. Once Gauld has generated the enthusiasm, a team of FAST, 

Inc. personnel-including Hyde Foundation Executive Director Ken Grant, FAST, Inc. 

Executive Director Paul Hurd, Hyde Foundation Director of Training Gary Kent, Hyde 

Foundation Director of Curriculum and Evaluation Craig Cunningham, and others—can 

begin to work with stakeholders in the local community to find ways to fit the Hyde 

program into their environments. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 48 


A. Describe the admission methods and standards you will use to select students. 

Admission to the Hyde Charter School will be based solely on the commitment of 
the student and his or her family to address the three questions— "Who am I?"; "Where am 
I going with my life?"; and "What do I have to do to get there?" 

The admissions process consists of five steps. First, application materials are 
submitted from student, parents (or guardians or mentors), and recommendations are 
solicited from current teachers. (Remember that mentors will be selected for students who 
do not have the requisite family commitment.) Second, the family participates in an 
interview (see below for more on this step). Third, an admissions committee makes a 
decision based on materials and the interview, and tentative admission is granted or 
denied. Fourth, the student attends a summer challenge orientation program which puts 
him or her through various challenges and allows the school to further gauge commitment 
to the Hyde principles and process. Fifth, final admission is granted or denied based on 
this orientation program. 

The key to gauging the commitment of student and family is an intensive one- to 
two-hour interview which differs markedly from the traditional admissions interview. 
Topics of the interview include the student's sense of self, purpose, and family, and the 
parent or guardian's sense of the student. The interview's main purpose is to determine 
whether or not the family is willing to tackle the issues which are relevant to its unique 
potential and the unique potential of the student, and whether the student and family are 
willing to adhere to the school's expectations and standards. Is the family truly ready to 
enroll in a program where each member will be expected to accept responsibility for his or 
her own personal growth? What is the family's commitment to excellence? Specifically, is 
the family willing to participate in the Hyde program to its full extent and to uphold and 
maintain the Hyde principles and ethics both in school and at home? 

Creating the Hyde Charter School 

February 15, 1994 

Page 49 

The interview includes both the prospective student and his or her parents, 
guardians, or mentors. Usually the interview starts with a focus on the student. Typical 
questions include: 

How is school going now? 

How do you feel about it? 

How could you do better? 

What are your friends like? Do your parents like your friends? Why or why 

Give an example of a recent challenge you accepted and assess how well you 
did in meeting it. 

Assess your own character. Which of the Five Words is your strongest suit? 

Which of the words do you feel you need to work on? 

How do you get along with your parents? 

What's the thing in your life that you're proudest of? 

What are you ashamed of? 

What do you hope to be doing with your life ten years from now? 

Which values will it be important for you to uphold? 

How would the students in your school evaluate you? How about the 

These questions usually lead to a discussion of the dynamics and issues which are 
pertinent to the prospective family. As fundamental as they are, Hyde finds that many 
families are discussing them less and less. The interview tries to get the focus of the 
family back to issues such as these. 

After the interviewer has spoken with the student for a while, the conversation 
turns to the parents. They are asked to assess their own effectiveness as parents. Typical 
question include: 

Creating the Hyde Charter School 

February 15, 1994 

Page 50 

What are your family's values? 

Is there a consensus in the family on these values? 

How well are you teaching these values? 

What were you like in school? 

How do you feel about your son's or daughter's progress in school? 

Are you proud of your son or daughter? Do you identify with him or her? 

What are the strongest aspect of your child's character? 

What are the strongest aspects of your character? 

What aspects of your character need improvement? 

Can you identify with your son's or daughter's strengths and weaknesses? 

After 28 years of interviews for Hyde, we have identified several characteristics of 
parents and students who will do well in the Hyde program. For parents, these 
characteristics are: 

Vision : "Our family members aspire to strong values and character." 

Concern : "I am concerned with my child's level of growth in relation to his or her 
potential in life." 

Accountability : "I will take responsibility for myself and my growth. I will assume 
that I am the primary teacher in developing my child's character." 

Commitment : "I am committed to my best." 
For students, characteristics of good Hyde candidates are: 

Vision : "I aspire to be a person with strong values and character." 

Concern : "I am concerned about my character." 

Accountability : "I will address my personal issues openly and honestly with myself 
and others. I welcome the help of others to accomplish this." 

Commitment : "I am committed to my best." 

Creating the Hyde Charter School . February 15, 1994 Page 51 

Following a satisfactory interview, both parents and students are asked to write a 
"Goals Paper" which builds on the interview and sets for a "plan of action" which will 
serve as a set of objectives for the Hyde experience. Admissions decisions are made by an 
admissions committee and are meant to ensure a diverse and committed group of families 
and students. ^^ 

B. Explain how these policies further the mission of the school in a non-discriminatory 

As we mentioned above, Hyde's commitment to unique potential voids the 
nagging issue of discrimination because each person's unique potential is of equal and 
incomparable worth. To have any biases in evaluating unique potential would be to fail to 
take the commitment to unique potential seriously. Visitors to Hyde School (Bath) and 
now the Hyde Leadership School of Greater New Haven are often struck by how open 
and un-cliquish is the Hyde student body, for the students also recognize the importance 
of having open minds in a unique potential process. 

We expect that the Hyde Charter School will accept a student body which roughly 
approximates the demographic character of its applicant pool. This will ensure that the 
mix of unique potentials in the school is a microcosm of the larger society. If the 
character of the enrolled student body differs markedly from the aj^Iicant pool, steps will 
be taken to step up marketing efforts in underrepresented groups. 

^^The Hyde Charter School will accept the most committed group of families and students 
from among all applicants. If the pool of highly committed families exceeds the capacities 
of the school, we would first try to find a way to increase those capacities. Only once the 
true limits of capacity have been reached would we consider using a lottery for admission. 
In that case, we would work out an arrangement with a local district to provide specific 
preference for students from that district, in return for a building or other consideration. 
Since Hyde accepis families and not students, siblings of Hyde students would 
automatically be accepted unless there were reasons to specifically question the 
commitment of one or more siblings. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 52 

Special education students . The Hyde Charter School will accept any student with 
identified special needs under the same criteria used for acceptance of all students. If the 
student (and the parents) are committed to addressing the three questions set forth above, 
and if the family is committed to excellence, special needs will be accommodated in 
whatever manner is necessary to ensure a quality Hyde program. 


A Describe the make-up of the group or partnership that is working together to apply for 
a charter. 

B. Discuss how the group came together, as well as any affiliation with existing schools, 
educational programs, businesses, non-profits, or any other groups. 

The Hyde Charter School is a project of The Hyde Foundation and FAST, Inc. 
together with the financial support of the Smart Family Foundation. The Design Team is 
led by Joseph W. Gauld, Founder of Hyde School (Bath), President of The Hyde 
Foundation and author of Character First: The Hyde School Difference (San Francisco: 
ICS Press, 1993). 

The Hyde Foundation is a Maine not-for-profit corporation established in 1990 to 
foster the development of Hyde schools nationally. Its Board of Governors consists of 
Lennox K. Black (Chairman of Teleflex, Inc. of Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania), Jack S. 
Diskin (Chairman of DiFam Investments, Ltd. of Calgary, Canada), David F. Hinchman 
(President of U.S. Precision Lens in Cincinnati, Ohio), and Raymond L. Smart (President 
of the Smart Family Foundation in Greenwich, Connecticut). The Hyde Foundation's 
senior management consists of President Joseph W. Gauld and Executive Director is 
Kenneth L. Grant. Additional personnel include Craig A. Cunningham, Director of 
Curriculum and Evaluation, and Claire D. Grant, Director of Family Learning. FAST, Inc. 
is a Massachusetts not-for-profit corporation established in 1991 specifically for the 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 53 

purpose of setting up a Hyde public school in Massachusetts. Its Board of Trustees 
consists of chairman Joseph W, Gauld, Kenneth L. Grant, and Craig A. Cunningham, its 
Executive Director is Paul Hurd, and its Director of Training is Gary Kent. Brief 
biographies of these individuals appear below. 

The Smart Family Foundation has been a supporter of Hyde programs for several 
years, and has made an informal commitment to support The Hyde Foundation for several 
more. Its president, Ray Smart, is a Hyde parent who deeply believes in the concept and 
has worked tirelessly to identify other sources of financial support, which have recently 
included the Donner Foundation, the William E. Simon Foundation, and The J.M. 

The Hyde Foundation's team is experienced in school administration, school 
restructuring, curriculum development, and family education. Members of the team were 
chosen for their extensive experience with the Hyde School experiment. More than half of 
the team are themselves Hyde graduates; all have demonstrated outstanding Hyde 
teaching; all have effectively administered both the Hyde School and the Hyde program. 
This team has worked effectively together over a long period of time. 

Below are brief biographies of the Design Team. More information can be found 
in the collection of resumes in Appendix IV. 

Joseph W. Gauld, Project Director 

Before he founded Hyde School in 1966, Joe Gauld was Admissions Director, 
Mathematics Department Head, and Assistant Headmaster of New Hampton School, and 
then Headmaster of Berwick Academy. He has served as Hyde School's Headmaster and 
President, President of F.A.S.T., Inc. (Family and School Together), and as continuing 
President of The Hyde Foundation. He has 45 years of experience as an educator. In 

^'*For financial and legal reasons, The Hyde Foundation receives direct support and then 
doles money out to FAST as needed. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 54 

1980, he served as Interim President of Gauld Equipment Co. in Mobile, Alabama. He 
has a B.A. from Bowdoin College and an M.A. in Mathematics from Boston University. 
Joe oversees all Hyde public school projects. He will take primary responsibility for 
selling the Hyde Charter School program to members of the local community. 

Kenneth L. Grant: Director of Operations (Designated Contact Person) 

Ken Grant has taught advanced biology and math at the Hyde School, where he 
has served as Program Director, Science Department Head, Assistant Headmaster, and 
Director of Business, Development, and Alumni Affairs. He has 17 years experience as an 
educator; 12 of these were at Hyde School. He has also served as Assistant Director of 
the Chewonki Foundation, an environmental education organization based in Wiscasset, 
Maine. He is a graduate of Hyde School and has a B.A. in biochemistry from Bowdoin 
College and an Ed.M. from Harvard University. Ken will administer the start-up period of 
the Hyde Charter School, and will be responsible for operations, finance, and 
organizational infrastructure, and will assist with training. 

Paul Hurd, Executive Director. FAST. Inc. 

Paul Hurd has taught history, geography, and government at the Hyde School, 
where he has also served as Director of Studies and Assistant Headmaster. He has 20 
years of experience in education, and has also worked for the State of Ohio and Historic 
Williamsburg as an historian. Paul graduated in Hyde School's first class (1967), and has a 
B.A. from Bowdoin College and an M.A. in education from the University of Chicago. 
Paul was the site coordinator during the initial year of the Hyde Leadership School of 
Greater New Haven. He implements staff training, oversees Hyde pilot programs, 
supervises site-coordinators, and serves as a trouble-shooter to assist implementation sites 
with design and implementation problems. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 55 

Gary Kent, Director of Training 

Gary Kent has taught EngUsh and social studies, coached football and wrestling, 
and served as Dean of Students at Hyde School and a number of public schools. He has a 
B.S. in education from the University of Maine at Orono, and an M.S. in administration 
from the University of Southern Mississippi. He has 33 years of teaching experience, 
including 19 at Hyde School. He has also assisted with coaching wrestling for the U.S. 
Olympic team. He holds Maine teaching certificates in English, social studies, and school 
leadership (administration). Gary oversees all training of public school teachers as - 
Director of Training for the Hyde Foundation and served as site coordinator of the 
Gardiner-Hyde Program during 1991-92. 

Craig A. Cunningham: Director of Curriculum and Evaluation 

Craig Cunningham has taught mathematics and chemistry at Hyde School, where 
he has served as Program Director. He has also worked on the development of 
mathematics curriculum for the University of Chicago Schools Mathematics Project. He 
has 11 years of experience in education, including a year teaching History and Philosophy 
of Education at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. He has an A.B. in history from 
Lafayette College and an M.A. in curriculum and instruction from the University of 
Chicago, where he is currently working on a Ph.D. dissertation under Professor Philip 
Jackson which explores the theories of moral education in the philosophy of John Dewey. 
Craig oversees the development of Hyde's academic curriculum, the use of computers, 
and the evaluation of Hyde public school projects. He is also responsible for grant writing 
and for articulation of the Hyde program to a wider audience through training and 
promotional materials. 

Claire D. Grant: Family Learning Coordinator 

Claire Grant has taught English at the Hyde School, and for the past seven years 
has served as Director of Family Education. Claire has 13 years of experience in 

Creating the Hyde Charter School 

February 15, 1994 

Page 56 

education. She is a graduate of Hyde School and has a B.A. in Political Science from the 
University of Southern Maine, and is a certified trainer for the Myers-Briggs Type 
Indicator, and has led workshops on family education for the New England Teachers 
Association. Claire oversees the further articulation of the family learning program, with 
an eye toward developing a program that public school teachers can implement in their 
own communities. 

The team from Hyde will be complemented by a group of over 50 committed 
Massachusetts parents, Hyde alumni, and former students who will help to select the site 
for the Hyde Charter School and will also be "on call" to help with start-up tasks including 
marketing, conducting initial interviews, and helping to facilitate leadership Family 
Learning Centers. A list of participants in this Hyde Booster Team is currently being 

In addition, we have assembled a small group of distinguished Massachusetts 
citizens who have agreed to serve as the Design Team Advisory Board of the Hyde 
Charter School during its start-up period. This group includes the follow people (we have 
listed occupations and Massachusetts towns of residence): 

Professor Kevin Ryan, The Center for the Advancement of Ethics and 
Character, Boston University; Newton. 

Professor Tom Loveless, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard 
University; Medford. 

Dr. and Mrs. Charles Wright, Chief of Orthopedics at Melrose-Wakefield 
Hospital; Andover. 

Professor Lee Perlman, Swarthmore College; residence: Cambridge. 

Mark Brown, Author of children's books; Dr. Laurie Brown, educator; 

Robert and Donald Anderson, The Anderson Insulation Co.; Nonvell. 
Scott Cooledge, Airline Pilot; Arlington. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 57 

Richard Howard, Attorney; Judy Howard, Landscaj)e Designer; Marblehead. 

Craig Mael, Restaurant Owner; Winthrop. 

Joseph Jones, Financial Planner; Betsy Jones, Teacher (Landmark School); 

Mr. and Mrs. Art Norris, Developer; Marblehead. 
Michael Nuesse, Attorney; Hull. 

C. Include any plans for further recruitment of founders or organizers of the school. 

Once our charter is approved, our Design Team Advisory Board will help us to 
find a suitable site. Once a site has been located (or at least a community identified), the 
Design Team Advisory Board will reconstitute itself to form a working Advisory Board to 
see the project through its first couple of years. We expect this Advisory Board to include 
local community leaders in addition to some of the members of the original Design Team 
Advisory Board. A small executive committee of this Advisory Board (4-6 members) will 
serve as the Board of Trustees for the purposes of the Massachusetts Charter School 

The reconstituted Advisory Board and its Board of Trustees will work with The 
Hyde Foundation and FAST, Inc. to identify a suitable Headmaster for the Hyde Charter 
School. It is expected that this Headmaster will initially be someone from the Hyde 
School in Bath, New Haven, or Baltimore. We feel strongly than an outsider cannot jump 
right in to run a Hyde school, since the philosophy and process is quite different from 
traditional schools. A local, experienced public school educator will also be identified 
during this initial period to serve as Head-in-training. Over the course of three to five 
years, the Head-in-training will study the methods and concepts of the Hyde system 
(perhaps spending up to a full year at the Hyde School in Bath to see the "flagship" in 
operation), and will gradually take over responsibilities for running the school. 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 58 

Governance of the Hyde Charter School will be modeled after the Hyde School in 
Bath, with the Board of Trustees having ultimate authority, and the Headmaster will 
report to the Board of Trustees and serve at its pleasure. The Headmaster will then have 
complete hiring and firing authority for the teachers and staff (subject, of course, to 
relevant laws and regulations). This "private school" model will allow the Hyde Charter 
School to have the leanness and flexibility necessary to move through the challenges of the 
initial years. 


A. Discuss a timetable of events leading to the opening of a charter school. 

Several key steps in the development of the Hyde Charter School have already 
been completed as of this filing (February 15, 1994): 

• Selection of Design Team 

• Selection of Design Team Advisory Board 

• Preparation of Initial Program Design 

• Application for Massachusetts Charter 

The following steps will be completed by the dates indicated: 

March, 1994: Initial granting of Charter 

April, 1994: Location of community and site to begin in earnest 

May, 1994: Complete application for financial assistance from Smart Family 

Foundation and other philanthropic sources 

January, 1995: Finalize selection of community and site 

Reconstitution of Advisory Board 
February, 1995: Selection of Headmaster 

Advertising begins for teachers and staff 
March, 1995: Interview for teachers and staff 

Creating the Hyde Charter School February 15, 1994 Page 59 

Advertising/marketing begins for students and families 

Performing arts tour by Hyde students 
April, 1995: Selection of teachers completed 

Initial interviews for students and families 
May, 1995: Continue interviews for students and families 

June, 1995: Complete selection of initial student body 

July 1995: Three-week intensive teacher training program in Maine 

August 1995: Three-week student and family orientation 

September 1995: School opens